Breathing pattern disorders including chronic hyperventilation may result in additional musculoskeletal pain. The incidence of musculoskeletal injury is quite high amongst athletes with Hootman reporting that 13.79 collegiate athletes are injured per 1000 athletes during competitive season. Breathing patterns play an important role in mechanical stability and mobility of the spine and trunk. Therefore, athletes with breathing pattern disorders may experience health and musculoskeletal conditions with poorer motor control patterns. The ideal breathing pattern is driven by the diaphragm with expansion of the lower ribs.
The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy | Volume 11, Number 6 | December 2016 | Page 971