15 middle distance runners (600- 3000m) Breath holding was practised over six weeks. Runners participated in official athletics competition before and after.
- First group- normal breathing +.03% improvement to time
- Second group- 15 to 20 minutes of breath holding on the exhalation once per week: +1.27% improvement to time
- Third group- 15 to 20 minutes of breath holding on the exhalation twice per week: +1.33% improvement to time
The results showed that all the runners who trained with breath holding on the exhalation twice a week improved their performance over distances ranging from 1200 meters to 3000 meters. The velocity improvement was 1.33% on average.
*Fortier E, Nadeau. Peterborough, Canada. (Cited in the book: Hypoventilation Training by Xavier Woorons from Paris 13 University)